Networking Fundamentals in IEEE format(sample)

brief explanation of networking fundamnetals


The networking fundamentals is practical linking of two or more devices for sharing resources and data. Some type of hardware resources are  Modems, Printer, Scanner or Fax machine etc. The second type of resources are step ahead of using application through application servers. Internet is one of simplest example of networking which consist  on global biggest network.


Computer networking starts in 1960s with development of Arpanet and soon Time Sharing System was developed[1]. In 1965 Wide Area Network (WAN) was developed by Thomas Marill and Lawrence. In 1970s Ethernet was developed for minicomputers[2]. Development and evolution of internet make it most used network for sharing resources and information after the 90s.


Network Models Types

The OSI Network Model

The OSI model uses a method known as layering to illustrate and consist on seven layer[3]. This model describes the framework of communication network.Engineers can study the working and problem of networking system by this model. The seven layer are explain below

OSI Model of Networking fundamentals

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1.    Physical Layer

This layer deals with physical connection of network such as cable or radio connection and not concern meaning of bits.

Example of physical layer include Ethernet, V.24, B8ZS and RJ45 etc.

Data Layer

This layer deals with data transmission and fix error during the transmission . Data link uses Error detection bits. Framing, Physical Addressing, Flow Control, Error Control and Access Control are main feature of Data Link layer.

Example of IEEE 802.3/802.2, PPP, FDDI and Frame Relay etc.

Network Layer

The main aim of this layer is internetwork data transfer. The packets of data are transmit by this layer. The choice transmission of data through network based on many criteria like route congestion, message priority or route cost.Example of Network DDP, IP, Appletalk and IPX etc.

Session Layer

This layer establish and maintain the communication interaction between systems. Devices communication is take place in this layer like instruction of Start, stop, restart direct to a device are an example of layer 5 protocol.

Presentation Layer

Communicating systems may have different language syntax and this layer rule as a translator.

Encryption,ASCII, EBCDIC, TIFF, MPEG, MIDI and GIF are example of presentation layer.

Application Layer

The top most layer is known as application layer. This layer is used directly to user. For example internet browser for browsing or communication network for communication like email or whatsapp

HTTP, WWW browser, SNMP, NFS, Telnet and FTP are example of Application layer.

TCP/IP Reference Model

The two main protocol are used in Reference Model. First is Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and second is Internet Protocol (IP).

TCP/IP Reference Model

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Application Layer:

The Application layer make communication interface for user. Web browser, file transfer and email client are example of communication interface[4].

Transport Layer:

All the functions are same as transport Layer of OSI explain above. End to end communication is main concern of transport layer.

Internet Layer:

This layer of TCP/IP is lowest layer of TCP/IP model. The main function of this layer that inject packets, addressing and routing to network.


  • Can operate independently
  • Client server architecture


  • No guarantee of delivering packets
  • No other application can be used this model
  • Protocol replace is not easy

DoD Model

The Department of Defense model was created in 1970s, also referred as (DARPA). The DoD model have four basic layers:

Dod Model explanation

Application Layer:

Application layer can be compared to OSI model. Many Protocol are applied in this layer like FTP, HTTP and  SMTP[5].

The Transport Layer:

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) are used for Transport layer..

Internet layer:

  The Internet layer provide transport of datagram for networks..

Link Layer:

This layer is make it possible to delivering data over the particular hardware media in use.

Types of Network

There are many types of network some of types are explain below:


LAN network are used for sharing service and resources such as printers, games, email, application and also can be used for access of internet. LANs range from one or two devices to thousands.This type of network provide faster communication and data can share in a quicker way.


Metropolitan Area Networks(MAN) is type of network which used to interconnect users in a geographical area which is larger than LAN. MAN network develop for linking two or more than two sites within a city of an organization.


The Wide Area Network (WAN) used for broad geographical area such as a country, state or province. Routers are used to connect LAN with a WAN. The WAN networks are very expensive and only limited organization can afford it like ISP. ATM and X.25 are types of WAN.

TCP/IP protocol used for WAN and a combination of routers, modems and firewall are used.

Transmission Media

There are two main type of media. Guided media involve Physical medium such as coaxial cable, fiber optics and twisted pair wire. UnGuided media make communication through  Wireless media such as microwave, infrared or satellite. Some of Guided media type are given below:

Twisted Pair Cable:

Twisted Pair Cable commonly used for modern Ethernet network and also widely used for telephone communication. These cable are pair of different color coated wires and twisted to reduce the electromagnetic interference between pairs. There are two types, one is UTP and STP. Many type of cable are using from time to time. There types are listed below:[6]

Category1: Only for telephone

Catorgory2:  Can tranmit 4 Mbps

Category3: Can transmit 10 Mbps

Category4:  Can transmit 16 Mbps

Category5: Can Transmit 100 Mbps

Category 5e: Can Transmit 1000 Mbps

Coaxial Cable:

Coaxial cable is more costly than Twisted pair cable but can be used to transmit long distance transmission for example, a twisted cable can only transmit 100m but Coaxial cable can transmit almost 500m. For long distance transmission fewer repeater required but couldn’t transmit large data and have limited transmission capacity from 10 to 100 Mbps.

Fiber Optic Cables:

The most advance technology of transmission is Fiber Optical Cable. These cables are used for transmission of large amount of data over a long distance at very fast speed. Optical Fiber turns signal in form of light. They have very high Bandwidth, low weight and have almost zero electromagnetic Interference.


The unguided media name was introduced because the wireless transmission is not in specific direction. Antenna and different devices are used for wireless transmission. They are categorised in many medium like radio waves, Microwave and infrared waves. Radio waves have low frequency and cover limited area, microwave transmit in straight line and infrared uses for short distance transmission.

Network Architecture

Network architecture describe  the overall design of computer network that how computer network will be config and which strategy will being used. There are two main types of network architecture.

Peer to Peer Network:

Peer to peer is a simple type of network architecture that used for  limited computers to use the personal resources and less than 10 computers can work on a single LAN. There’s no central control or administrator rule and each computer is responsible for making available resources to computer.


  1. Easy setup
  2. Low cost


  1. Addition load
  2. No centralized

Client / Server Network

A type of network in which server provide resources, security and administration of network. All access of Hardware, resources and software control by server and make a centralized storage area. A server have all resources and provide resources to client when any request is received to server from client.


●        Secure

●        One place resource availability

●        Gives Better Performance


●        Expensive

●        Professional require to Operate

●        Expensive software

Synchronous and Asynchronous Transmission

Asynchronous method is used, like back up plans because of cheap method and for fast and and bulk data transmission the Synchronous method is used with high price.

Network topology

 The topology refers to design of network.Topology describe how data can be travel in an order around the network. Many types of topology are used in a network.

Bus Topology:

In Bus topology all devices are directly connected to a single wire. Cheap and simple installation are main features. The disadvantage of this topology is that if there’s break in main cable all network will shut down.

Star Topology:

In star topology all device individually  connected with a central hub and can be benefits if multiple user connected to a single hub.

Ring Topology:

A ring topology make a circular path of config for data and one of the cheapest topology in which all devices are connected to each other but if one port or device goes down then all network will go down.

Tree Topology:

Tree Topology is extension of bus and star topology but not commonly used network topology. The main advantage is that maintenance is easy but huge number of cable is required.

Network Component


A server is computer or computer program that manage network  access to a centralized resource.There are many types of servers such as application server, web server and database servers.


Client is computing device application that  obtaining application and information from server.sends request to server and use resources such as peripherals devices or application.

Operating System: Operating System is a loaded program that manage and make interface between applications and hardwares.

Gateway: A  gateway make interface between two network devices to make a communication between them.

Bridge: Bridge used to connect two network.

Modem: The device which used to send and receive data over a transmission medium.

Firewall: The protection system use to prevents unauthorized access of a hardware device or software or both.


Networking perform a basic rule in field of communication and make it possible to use resources of different devices. Internet is one of the biggest form of network but security is always a big issue. Unauthorized access and cyber attack are only possible due to loopholes in network which need to be address.


  1., The First National Air Defence [online] Available :
  2. K.A. Zimmermann (2017,june,27) “ Internet History Timeline: ARPANET to the World Wide Web” [Online] Available :
  3., “Computer Networks -ISO Model “ [Online] Available :
  4. I.Daemon (2014, Feb, 15) “ The TCP/IP Network Model “ [online] Available:
  5. M. Stacey (1998, Apr, 30), “ The Network Layer” [Online] Available :
  6. Cisco Press (2003, Mar, 14) “ CCNA: Network Media Types” [Online] Available :

Note: This article is written by graduate student so don’t think it’s a research paper only for explanation of networking fundamentals. So please forgive if any mistake.